Monday 30 November 2015

The Divine Pharaohs

Egypt's old kingdom(c.2686 - 2181 BC) flourished on the flood-enriched banks of the River Nile. It was an era of prosperity, relative stability, and strong centralized rule, during which the great pyramids were built and Egyptian society worshiped their mighty kings, or pharaohs, as "gods on Earth".

The period between early Neolithic settlement and 3100 BC is known as Egypt's pre-dynastic era.

Egypt's old kingdom existed in two parts - Northern(Upper) Egypt and Southern(Lower) Egypt. the old kingdom lasted from 3rd dynasty to 6th dynasty. The capital city of old Egyptian kingdom was Memphis.

Djoser was the second pharaoh of the third dynasty(2686 - 2613 BC) and Imhotep was his chief adviser and physician. Imhotep is credited as the main architect of Djoser's step pyramid in Memphis and was worshiped as god in later ancient Egypt and Greece.

Djoser's step Pyramid

The early pharaohs were representations of mythical figure Horus, son of god Osiris and Isis. He was often depicted as dressed in kind of a kilt(skirt type garment) and false beard, bearing a crook and scepter and with the double crown of Lower and Upper Egypt on his head.

Pharaoh Tutankhamen  

The great pyramid at Giza - the tomb of Pharaoh Khufu was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world and the only one to survive till date.Two million blocks each weighing 15,000 Kg were used in building this pyramid. The great sphinx is also thought to have Khufu's features.

The middle or the second largest pyramid at Giza belong to Pharaoh Khafre and the smallest one to Pharaoh Menkaure. 

The Giza pyramid complex

At the end of sixth Dynasty after the reign of Pepe II, the old kingdom started to fade and nobles gained more power then Pharaohs.

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