Thursday 5 November 2015

The Cradle of Civilization

Mesopotamia, a fertile land embraced by rivers, was the site of the first complex societies. By 3,000 BC, competing city states of great wealth an sophistication were flourishing here, with advanced irrigation and agricultural schemes, established trade, the first known writing, and great palaces and temples.

The civilization of Mesopotamia included Iraq, southwest Iran, east Syria and south east Turkey.

Mesopotamia had no native metal or ore so both Copper and Gold had to be imported from Anatolia.

Trade came to involve Tigris and Euphrates rivers where rafts made of wood and inflated goat skins came into use by 3,000 BC. They had trade ties with modern Afghanistan, Persian gulf and Indus valley.

Sargon (Ruled 2340 BC - 2284 BC) was a great warrior king who established the Akkadian dynasty and ruled from his capital Akkad. Unlike Egyptian civilization there was no centralized rule and kings were rarely thought to be divine.

Bronze cast head of Sargon
In one grave 74 bodies were found that let us know that slaves must do god's bidding to such an extent that palace staff would entomb themselves with the king.

In science their numerical system was based on number 60 that lives in division of circle in 360 degrees and splitting of hours and minutes in 60 parts.

By around 3,000 BC Mesopotamia was entering an era known as Early dynastic period which lasted for 700 years.

After the Akkadian era, the third dynasty of Ur(2100 - 2000 BC) fought off competing city states to found a short lived empire and after the Ur dynasty faded, the Assyrian city state of Assur(2000 - 18000 BC) emerged as the center of vast trade network in north.

By 1900 BC, the city of Babylon had been emerging as a dominant power.

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